Teaching  aptitude

Teaching, concept 

 objects Level of teaching

 characteristics of teacher

Basic  requirement

       Nature & Objectives

According to Gage (1963):-Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behaviour potential of another person.”

Edmund Amidon (1967): “Teaching is an interactive process, primarily involving classroom talk which takes place between teacher and pupil and occurs during certain definable activities.

      Aptitude: a natural ability to do something.


Teaching is one of the instruments of education and is a special function is to impart understanding and skill. The main function of teaching is to make learning effective. The learning process would get completed as a result of teaching. So, teaching and learning are very closely related.

                                       




                CONCEPT OF TEACHING


Teaching is a process in which one individual teaches or instruct another individual. Teaching is considered as the act of imparting instructions to the learners in the classroom situation. It is watching systematically.

     Teaching is part of education

(1) H C Morrison:- Teaching is an intimate contact between the more mature personality and a less mature one.

(2)  Jackson:- Teaching is a face to face encounters between two or more persons, one of whom ( teacher) intends to effect certain changes in the other participants ( students).

(3)  J B Hough and James K Duncan:- Teaching is an activity with four phases, a               curriculum  planning phase, an instructing phase, and an evaluating phase.
This definition presents the organizational aspect by which we can describe and analyze the teaching process.

 (4) Clerk:- Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produce in                students behavior.

                                               

           Nature and characteristic of teaching-

Teaching is a social and cultural process, which is planned to enable an individual to learn something in his life. We can describe the nature and characteristics of teaching in the following way:-

  • Teaching is a complete social process- Teaching is undertaken for society and by society. With ever-changing social ideas, it is not possible to describe the exact and permanent nature of teaching.
  • Teaching is giving information- Teaching tells students about the things they have to know and students cannot find out themselves. Communication of knowledge is an essential part of teaching.
  • Teaching is an interactive process- Teaching is an interactive process between the student and the teaching sources, which is essential for the guidance, progress, and development of students.
  • Teaching is a process of development and learning.
  • Teaching causes a change in behavior.
  • Teaching is an art as well as science.
  • Teaching is face to face encounter.
  • Teaching is observable, measurable, and modifiable.
  • Teaching is a skilled occupation:- Every successful teacher is expected to know the general methods of teaching-learning situations.
  • Teaching facilitates learning
  • Teaching is both a conscious and an unconscious process.
  • Teaching is from memory level to reflective level.
  • Teaching is a continuum of training, conditioning, instruction, and indoctrination.

Understand the meaning of teaching; it is essential to understand the difference between teaching and other similar concepts like conditioning, training, instruction, and indoctrination.

  1.        Teaching is different from conditioning as it aims to develop intellect and has border scope with the vast curriculum while on the other hand conditioning is the modification of behavior and learning habits. In conditioning, the curriculum is fixed and done by the repetition of the behavior.
  2. Teaching is different from training as teaching is mostly theoretical and usually refers to classroom learning while training is practical oriented and it refers to workshops, seminars, role-plays, simulations, etc. skill development is a key aspect of the Training Process.
  3. Teaching and instruction are different as Instruction is the act of telling the learner what to do or what not to do to impart knowledge of specific subjects while teaching means the development of the potential of an individual.

Teaching and Indoctrination are different as indoctrination poses the belief that there is only one solution to the problem while teaching points out that there are different solutions, often to the Same problem

 Teaching three different point of view

         We can define teaching according to the following three viewpoints.


(a) Authoritarian

(b) Democratic

(c) Liassez faire.

(a) Authoritarian:-

According to this viewpoint-

Teaching is an activity of memory level only

This teaching does not develop thoughts and attitude in the students.

Is known as thoughtless teaching

This teaching is teachers centric criticism of the teachers.

(b) Democratic teaching:-
According to this

Teaching is done at understanding level.

Memory level teaching is the prerequisite (concept) is first memorized and then understand

Such teaching is known as thoughtful teaching.

According to this point of view, teaching is an interactive process, primarily involving classroom talks which takes place between teachers and student.

Here students can ask questions and criticize the teachers.

Here students can ask the questions and self-disciplined is insisted.

(c) Laissez Faire

Attitude:-

It is known as reflective level teaching.

It is more difficult then memory level and understanding level of teaching.

Memory level and understanding level teaching are must for the reflective level of teaching.

It is highly thoughtful activity.

In this level both students and teachers are participants.

This level produces insights.

 

 Levels of teaching: memory, understanding, and reflective

The Overall object of teaching is to build an overall personality of the learners and it evolves around the development of learner’s capability, thinking, and change in the behavior of students.

                Level of Teaching

  • Memory Level of Teaching
  • Understanding Level of Teaching
  • Reflective Level of Teaching

Key Points on Memory level teaching (MLT)

  1. Memory level teaching emphasis on presentation of fact and information and it’s all about CRAMMING.
  2. Knowledge or information is gained by the learner through memorization.
  3. It is the initial stage of teaching and induces the habit of ROTE Learning of facts and subject matters
  4. Its provide students with the ability to retain and reproduce the learned subject.
  5. It covers only the knowledge-based objectives of Bloom’s Taxonomy. At this level, the student learns to identify, recall or remembers the objects, events, ideas and retain them in memory.
  6. The teacher plays a very dominating and authoritarian role while instructing
  7. The evaluation system mainly includes Oral, Written and easy type-examination as well organized and is simple so that it can be acquired through rote learning.
  8. The role of the teacher is prominent (Primary & active) and that of the student is secondary (Secondary & Passive).
  9. Memory level teaching does not improve intelligence and increase student’s capability but this is required for other types of teaching levels.

Classification of memory:

  • Immediate memory: when a recall is immediate
  • Permanent memory: the recalling of material for a longer time.
  • Personal memory: while recalling the experience, we remember our personal experience.
  • Impersonal memory: recalling from books, and companion.
  • Active memory: make effort to recall past experiences, recalling answers in exams.
  • Passive memory: recall experience without effort.
  • Mechanical memory or physical memory: body becoming habitual of doing any task repeatedly.
  • Rote memory:  cramming facts without understanding.
  • Logical memory: to learn something by using intellect and it’s recalling when needed.

                    Key Points on Understanding level of teaching(ULT)

  1. Memory level teaching is the prerequisite for the understanding level of teaching as it talks about the generalization of principles, theory, and other key important facts.
  2. This helps to build the thinking level of students to make use of their acquired knowledge based on previously known facts and subjects.
  3. The teacher explains the student the relationship between principles and facts and teaches them how these principles can be applied.
  4. It focusses on mastery of the subject
  5. It provides more and more opportunity for the students to develop skills of ‘Memory + Insight’
  6. The evaluation system of this level is mainly objective-type questions and essays.
  7. Student and teacher both play an active role in the Understanding level of teaching

      Morrison has divided the understanding level of teaching into 5 steps;

  • Exploration: testing previous knowledge, analyzing the content.
  • Presentation: content is presented, diagnosis, and recapitulation till the students understand.
  • Assimilation: generalization, individual activities, working in laboratory and library, the test of content.
  • Organization: pupils are provided with the occasions for representation.
  • Recitation: pupil presents the content orally.

           Key Points on Reflective level of teaching(RLT)

Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over some time. It also means thinking deeply about something.

  1. It talks about both ‘Understanding level’ & ‘Memory Level’ teaching and its problem centered.
  2. Its main objective to develop problem-solving, critical and constructive, independent, original thinking.
  3. At this level, the emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining it, and finding a solution to it. The student’s original thinking and creative-abilities develop at this level.
  4. A student is Core ‘Active & Primary’ while Teacher becomes ‘Secondary & passive’ in this.
  5. In the Reflective level of teaching (RLT) Hunt is the main Proponent. It includes ULT and MLT. It is problem-centered teaching. The students are assumed to adopt some sort of research approach to solve the problem. The classroom environment is to be sufficiently ‘Open and Independent’
  6. Hunt developed the reflective model of teaching which goes through the various steps including creating a problematic situation. Formulate and verify the hypothesis, data analysis, and testing the hypothesis around the problem.
  7. Essay type test is used to evaluate the learning process.

The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is learner-centered.

                                   Learner’s Characteristics

A Learner is someone who is consistently learning. We all are the learner at some or the other time in our daily life. To be precise, a learner at a particular time is that person who is learning about a particular subject.

For a decision maker, it is important to know the learner’s characteristics. It is essential to know what factors affect their learning. Learning can be described that the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, skill values, behavior and preferences.

Learning is strongly based on the intellectual level, cognitive ability, perception, personality and attitude of a learner. As individual many factors affect the learning of a person. They are bound to get influenced by the social arena, cultural habits, and willingness of a person to adopt change.

No successful outcome strategy can be expected without analyzing learner characteristics. Learner characteristics can be identified by collecting the information based on their cognitive, physiological, affective and social characteristics. Different methods are used to collect information about learners such as surveys, interviews, observation, current knowledge/ skill levels and performance result.
Learner’s characteristics are many such as personal, academic, social/emotional and/or cognitive in nature.

Personal characteristics can be defined as demographic information about the learner such as age, gender, cultural background, maturation, language, social economic status and specific needs of a learner group such as particular skills and disabilities for and/or impairments to learning.

Academics characteristics of respondents including the education type, education level, and knowledge. The learner has social/emotional characteristics.

Cognitive characteristics of learner can be described such as memory, mental pressure, solve problems, intellectual skill, remembers, organizes and store information in the brain.

 

                                            Definitions of Learning

Gardener Murphy: “The term learning covers every modification in behavior to meet environmental requirements.”
Henry P. Smith: “Learning is the acquisition of new behavior or the strengthening or weakening of old behavior as the result of experience.”
 

Learning means a permanent change in the behavior of the learner through experience, instructions, and study. It is very difficult to measure the learning but the result of learning can be measured.

Learner characteristics can be described as measuring the characteristics of learners such as behavioral nature, attitudes and psychological towards everything related to learning.

 

In learner characteristics aptitude is defined according to Cronbach and Snow as “any characteristic of a person that forecasts his probability of success under a given treatment” or “whatever makes a person ready to learn rapidly in a particular situation (or, more generally, to make effective use of a particular environment)” Various components were described in learner characteristics such as gender, attitude, motivation, learner style and cultural background.



There are the few characteristics of learners given below-

Good learners are curious


A learner is never satisfied. They are always hungry for information, love the discovery and try to find out the solution to problems. Learner collects the information about best study material and latest information which was provided by UGC.

Carefully understanding


A good learner possesses the attribute of careful understanding. Most of the knowledge can be gained with the hard work and efforts.  A learner should try to understand the subject matter carefully. An effective learner always tries to interpret the stimulus, combine and differentiate them and give them some meaning.Learner’s characteristics are divided into following categories which are explained as follows:

Social and Personal quality-


A learner who has personal quality understands subject matter easily and solves the problems very fast. Different learners have different personal and social cognitive power. A Learner who belongs to the different social structure may face the problem during the study at other place but a good leaner easily adapts and adjust environment of the class.

Growth and development-


Learner’s characteristics are subject to his mental & intellectual growth and development. Education and training are helpful to positive growth and development. A good educationist takes the responsibility to himself of identifying the characteristics of the learner and developing skills into him/her.

Willingness to learn-


A Learner is always willing to learn and open for information. He has a broad mental space and accepts the changes consistently. Inquisitive nature of learner develops an urge in them for acquiring more and more knowledge from their parents, siblings, neighbours, relatives, teachers, society and many more.

Interests and attitude of learner


There is a difference between the interest and the attitude of leaner. A teacher always plays an important role to assess the learners for their interest and aptitude so that they can guide according to their aptitude.

Easily Adjustment to Change-


Although, it is not possible to every learner to adjust in every situation as a different learner has different characteristics of adjustment. Some learner easily adapts classroom environment and some feel uncomfortable in the class environment. So, a good learner should adjust according to the situation.

Internal Motivation-


Motivation is an important factor for a learner to achieve their goals. Learners differ in their capacity of motivation. Some learners are easily motivated while some feel hesitation for a long time before they get motivated by their instructors.

Social-cultural background


Learners come from different culture, area and family background. These learners perform in a homogenous group. Learner takes some time to understand the class environment and adapt. It is very difficult for leaner to adapt, understand and merge the different disciplines in the beginning.

Learning power


Some learners very quickly understand the questions and solve the problems. If the learners solve the problems easily, it means the understanding level of a learner is high as compared to another person who takes the more time to understand and solve the problems.

Nervousness


Nervousness is the natural attribute an of learners. If the learner feels nervousness, it means that they have lack of knowledge about the things. It can be removed with the help of teaching-learning process.

Application of mind & Creativity


All Learners have the different approach to their lives. Most of the learners accept what is taught to them but there are have many creative abilities. They have the ability to explore the things and think innovations.

Moreover, application of mind is necessary to remain ahead. In society different person have the different profession such as doctor, scientist, innovators and discovers are from the categories of learner who are creative.

                              
Bloom  Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy, proposed by Benjamin Bloom, is a theoretical framework for learning and identifies three domains of learning:


Cognitive: Skills in the Cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension and critical thinking on a particular subject. In traditional forms of education, classrooms or online learning, the emphasis is more on the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives.

Affective: Skills in the Affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and involve learning that happens at the behavioral level. Affective objectives aim to increase the awareness and improve attitudes, emotions and feelings.

Psychomotor: The Psychomotor domain deals with skill-based learning. Skills involve the capability to bodily manipulate tools or instruments similar to a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change or development in behavior and skills.


A few other important outcomes of learning are also-

Learning is a blend of new or old learner
It is helpful to develop learner as well as society.
It enhances the purposeful ability of learners.
It helps the learner in adjusting to his environment.
It results in a change in behavior of the learner
Learning is a product of heredity and environment

                                   Teaching Method

Its well-known fact and based on various study to examine the direct and indirect effects of factors affecting the learning process or teaching significant evidence was provided that the learning process and teaching is affected both by direct and indirect variable. Not only this teaching process also gets impacted based on ‘individual’s characteristics’ of learner and teacher along with the environmental factors that influence their integration in the class room.

Learning is the one of most important factor that brings changes in the behavior of the learner…but there is some factor which influences the acquisition of knowledge provided by teachers.

These factors are broadly divided into three areas –

Learners Psychological /Individual Characteristic

Teachers & Class room supports
Environment and other surrounding factors


Factors affecting teaching
Teacher


Teacher –
Teacher plays and important role in the teaching-learning process as facilitator of learning. By adopting the best teaching techniques and efficient methods a teach could explore the right talent of the learners to help them towards quality learning process.

It depends on the various factors of teacher-

Educational Qualification
– Learning of different subjects and area can provide highly valued instruction which can effect than one who with only general degree. If you compare the teacher who has M.ED or PhD you will be able to identify the different ways of thinking and imparting knowledge to students.


Skills –
‘Teaching Talent’ is different psychology. One who has higher degree can’t assure he has right instinct and can teach in better way than others. teaching skill is all about you connect with students; it depends on the method of teaching you apply, your way of explanation and engagement with students in the class room. Teacher need to have mastery of following skill –
Communication skills for better involvement and engagement
Use of teaching aids effectively
Selection of teaching method appropriately
Passion for teaching
Human relation skills to act as best guide or mentor

Experience – its well-known fact that it’s easy to become teacher after fulfilling the criteria but they actually become ‘Master’ with their experience. High Qualification may give teachers edge in terms of understanding the different topics or complex formula but it’s the experience in the classroom which helps you to learn and employ better methods to effect learning of students. This is also required to handle different mindset of different students in the class-room.

Subject matter – Many time teachers has been assigned a subject in which he is not specialized and he himself not in better position to help learners in effective way …so the passion towards the subject and SME is also key factor that impact learning of students. For example, this is very rare chance that Arts Teacher can give good learning experience in subjects related to science.

Learner


Learner
– Learning is most effective when the differences in learner’s language, cultural and social behaviors are taken into account, its necessary to take note of intelligence, ethnic group, race, belief and socioeconomic status of the learners which can influence the teaching in the class room. Every individual is different with others in the terms of physical, social and cultural orientation; these aspects make learner different from one another.

Also its depends on the interest of the learner including the aptitude, attitude, motivation, mental health and aspiration towards the goals of life.

In short
– Psychological difference of learns plays important role in the terms of ability to learns things in the class room.

Environment and other factors –

Support materials – Teacher Support system is set of tools that will improve student’s achievement by improving the capacity of teachers. Different teaching Aid and Support System influences the way decision are made and information is passed to students. Its help to analyze the area in which students are under performing. This also helps teachers to gain new skill to increase student learning by use of effective strategies. This is vast area which included many sub section to be worked upon by teacher to improve overall learning process through effective use of tools, assessment methods and professional development.
Student assessments and scores
Teaching Strategies and lesson plans
Standards and benchmark
Effective use of traditional, modern and ICT based tools
Instructional facilities-

Teaching Aids – Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include helping learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustrating or reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way.
Learning environment
Class-room environments – Class room environment plays important role in learning process and it effects both teacher and learner. While this is to be maintained by both by teacher and students. For active participation in education, concentration of students is required. Teacher need to focus of behavior of students along with other factors to improve the class-room environment so that students listen teachers’ voice while interacting with students.

Socio-economic factor – Economic and social background of teacher and students also affect learning curve. It has direct and indirect effects on thinking level of students and teacher both. Various study of teaching has pointed poor and rich student classify economically and these factor has influence on their learning speed. On other side if teacher is less paid in terms of salary this also impact his thinking level and ways of teaching in the classroom.

Expectations – Every parents have some sort of expectation with his ward in terms of what and where they want to see their children. this has psychological impact on students causing stress and impairments. It often seen that if student is not able to perform mentally it create depression and sometime leads to life failure. That’s the reason parent’s involvement in the learning process in important to ease out burden on students and helping them to improve learning as over all.

Institution – Teacher is abiding by administrative policy of the institution effecting the learning process. There are chances that Teacher want to deliver in a way he loves to do but the institute policy don’t allow him to use his own method. This leads to dissatisfaction in teacher causing learning process to slow down. It should not be the case that teacher should allow the way they want but effective planning of lesson and consultation to improve learning path is required in line with the institute policy.

NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) in its publication Core Teaching Skills (1982) has laid stress on the following teaching skills.

Writing instructional objectives
Organizing the content
Creating set for introducing the lesson
Introducing a lesson
Structuring classroom questions
Question delivery and its distribution
Response management
Explaining
Illustrating with examples
Using teaching aids
Stimulus variation
Pacing of the lesson
Promoting pupil participation
Use of blackboard
Achieving closure of the lesson
Giving assignments
Evaluating the pupil’s progress
Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and taking remedial measures
Management of the class
Micro Teaching –
Micro-teaching is a product of research at Stanford University. It was first adopted in 1961 by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers. It implies micro-element that systematically attempts to simplify the complexities of the teaching process.

Teaching is a complex process. It cannot be mastered in a rigid and general setting. So it is analyzed into well-defined components that can be practiced, taught and evaluated.

Micro-teaching concentrates on specific teaching behaviors and provides opportunity for practicing teaching under controlled conditions. So through micro-teaching, the behavior of the teacher and pupil is modified and the teaching-learning process is more effective by the skill training.

Conclusion –
There are multiple scholarly articles available for factors affecting teaching which talks on the various key issues such as teacher student relationship, socioeconomic conditions, school’s policy, motivation and other. This includes parent’s expectation. So over all multiple factors participate in learning process to slow it down.

Teaching Method

There are different types of teaching methods which can be categorized into four broad types.

Teacher-centered methods,
Learner-centered methods,
Content-focused methods;
Interactive/participative methods.


 Instructor/Teacher Centered Methods
Here the teacher casts himself/herself in the role of being a master of the subject matter. The teacher is looked upon by the learners as an expert or an authority. Learners, on the other hand, are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of knowledge from the teacher.

Examples of such methods are expository or lecture methods – which require little or no involvement of learners in the teaching process. It is also for this lack of involvement of the learners in what they are taught, that such methods are called “closed-ended”.



 Learner-Centered Methods
In learner-centered methods, the teacher/instructor is both a teacher and a learner at the same time. In the words of Lawrence Stenhouse, the teacher plays a dual role as a learner as well “so that in his classroom extends rather than constricts his intellectual horizons”.

The teacher also learns new things every day which he/she didn’t know in the process of teaching. The teacher “becomes a resource rather than an authority”. Examples of learner-centred methods are discussion method, discovery or inquiry-based approach and the Hill’s model of learning through discussion (LTD).



Content-Focused Methods
In this category of methods, both the teacher and the learners have to fit into the content that is taught. Generally, this means the information and skills to be taught are regarded as sacrosanct or very important.

A lot of emphases is laid on the clarity and careful analyses of content. Both the teacher and the learners cannot alter or become critical of anything to do with the content. An example of a method which subordinates the interests of the teacher and learners to the content is the programmed learning approach.



 Interactive/Participative Methods
This fourth category borrows a bit from the three other methods without necessarily laying emphasis unduly on either the learner, content or teacher. These methods are driven by the situational analysis of what is the most appropriate thing for us to learn/do now given the situation of learners and the teacher.

They require a participatory understanding of varied domains and factors.

Details of Various Methods with Advantages & Disadvantages

                           THE LECTURE METHOD
A formal or semi-formal discourse in which the instructor presents a series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains relationships
It creates new ideas.
It is good for a large class.
The teacher is experienced and has mastery on the subject, explain all points and can answer all questions raised by students.
Students can ask if they need any clarification.
Learn through listening
The teacher explains all the points.
Students give their input
Teacher discusses the whole topic in the class in easy language students can easily understand the topic.\
It is good for a large class.
The teacher provides all knowledge related to the topic.
Time-saving as a teacher is supposed to finish the lecture on time.
Students give their views at the end of the lecture.
Students can ask the question if they have any problem to understand the lecture.
Students attentively listen to a lecture and take notes as the teacher ask questions at the end of the lecture.
Students know and understand basic concepts.
The teacher knows all the students so he/she can use suitable strategies for the class to make them understand.
The teacher is experienced and has mastery on a subject and can answer all questions by students.
Teacher share information with students so it creates interest in students.
Students are more involved and participate when teacher ask the question.
The teacher provides notes.
Students easily understand every point.
Students share knowledge with the teacher.
The teacher is a role model for students.

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    Teaching Support System Traditional Modren(ICT) based



Today, in the 21st century understanding is more important than ever. That is why it is vital for educators to use methods or techniques in teaching that will enable learners to use their knowledge efficiently to solve problem in their daily lives.

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has challenged the traditional method of teaching and changed the educational landscape globally. The teaching method is now divided into two different ways of thinking on education, one is traditional and other one is ICT Method.

Most of the teachers and experts have explored new methods of teaching and believe that modern methods or the ICT method is better than the traditional method of teaching.

When we talk about teaching methods then our society divides into three groups; one group favors the traditional teaching methods, second group favors modern teaching methods and third group is the one who supports the combination of both for effective teaching.

In this article I will explain that what are the pros and cons of each teaching support system and how we can integrate both traditional and modern teaching methods for effective teaching.

What is Teaching Support System
Traditional teaching methods and support system
Traditional education, also known as back-to- basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs that society traditionally used in schools.

The back-to-basics traditional education method, also known as ‘chalk & talk method’
This old fashioned way of teaching was all about the recitation and memorization techniques.
The traditional role of teaching focuses on the teacher as organizers of learning activity,
providers of information and experts of knowledge.

The teacher carries too much of responsibility for teaching in the classroom to make sure everything they are teaching is understood by the students.
Teacher is also responsible to control class where the teacher teaches using blackboard, explains concepts, asks students to copy and makes sure that students are paying attention
This technique of teaching is a one-way flow of information in which the teacher often continuously talks for an hour or more expecting that when he asks a question, the students will able to reproduce the same thing that he was talking about.
Every important thing regarding the topic is written on the blackboard and students make important notes from the blackboard. After the lecture is over students revise their notes and try to memories the notes.
Instruction based on textbooks, lectures and individual written assignments
The main objective of traditional teaching is to pass the examination.
Merits and demerits of traditional teaching methods-
Traditional methods of teaching that are still being adhered to in the schools, It has more interaction between the teacher and student.
             Traditional

Traditional teaching systems helps to build the discipline in the class room
Lack of collaboration and group learning
More emphasis on examinations and results rather than understanding of concepts
Tools used in Traditional Teaching Support System-

Blackboard
Textbooks
Charts
Images & posters
Maps & atlas, globes
Flash cards, flip cards
Science lab apparatus, models
Workbook
Drawing books
Dictionary, encyclopedias
Vedic math tools
Puzzle books, general knowledge books


        Modern and ICT Based teaching methods-


Gone are the days of blackboard and chalk …it all replaced by LCD Projectors & interactive whiteboards in the classroom. When we talk about the modern or ICT based education system its include full fledged usages of high tech equipment in the educational institutions.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
in education is the mode of education that use information and communications technology to support, enhance, and optimize the delivery of information.


ICT Based Teaching methods
The Mobile learning (m
learning) as a form of e learning is a rising trend where the education has outgrown the physical constraints of the classrooms and acquired mobility. Students access information whenever and wherever they want, and institutions that provides such advanced technological terrains is rising in number day by day.


Use of computers or laptops & Technology-driven classrooms
Smart interactive boards with help of PowerPoint presentation and interactive videos
Use of microphones for delivering the lecture in the classroom
Emphasis on understanding of concepts, Activity-based learning and learning labs
Digitization in teaching, learning assessment and feedback improves learning process and it also helps Integrative and social responsibility and civic engagement.

Collaborative learning and Problem-based learning is key aspect of Modern Teaching Methods.

Below are few key teaching techniques based on Modern and ICT Based teaching methods.

Flipped Classroom – Its allow students to go beyond their normal boundaries and explore the lesson before teacher describe them in class-room.
Design Thinking & Creative ideas – This involves real life case to increase the curiosity, analytical skills and creativity.
Mind Maps – Use of self-learning tools
Gamification – Learn through the play using quizzes and hunt ideas
Free online Learning Tools
ICT Based Teaching Methods – Virtual Reality , Virtual Labs , Open educational Resources
Learning Management system (LMS) & Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
Merits and demerits of modern and ICT based teaching methods-
Interactivity and collaborative learning process with more interest among the students with the help of interesting group activity
Lots of audio visual recording and online contents helps the students to understand the subject better and also helps students to memories the concept for longer time
Modern teaching methods teacher can cover more syllabus in lesser time
Modern teaching methods can adversely affect the eyes of the students.
Less integration with teachers
Tools used in Modern & ICT based Support system
ICT Based Devices – Laptop / Pad / Electronic notebooks, E-reader etc.
Educational games/ Online Puzzles and quiz’s
Audio Visual Teaching aids
Flash educational games
CD/DVD, Projectors
Interactive white boards
Various electronic devices to support Games, VR , and LMS
Modern and ICT Based teaching methods Traditional teaching methods and support system

  Choice Based Credit System In Higher Education

 

In the words of Kothari Commission,” Evaluation is a continuous process, forms an integral part of the total system of education and is intimately related to educational objectives. It exercises a great influence of the pupil’s study habits and the teacher’s methods of instruction and thus helps not only to measure educational achievement but also to improve it. The techniques of evaluation are means of collection evidence about the student’s development in desirable directions.”

The Ministry of Human Resource and Development of India are in the process for New Educational Policies to develop and reform the educational system of our country.  Several steps are being taken to improve the excellence, efficiency for the Higher Education System like change in the curriculum, change in the education system, etc.

In most institutes for higher education, Semester system or percentage based evaluation system are being followed.

There’s a lot of buzz in introducing the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) in higher education for evaluation purpose.

Now, what is Choice Based Credit System?


As already mentioned above, most of the educational institutions follow marks or percentage based evaluation systems which restrict the students to take up the subject or the course of their choice.  Our educational system should be flexible that is, the student must get a choice to study his/her course/subject of interest. It can only be possible if the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) are being introduced.

The CBCS opens up many opportunities and path for the students to learn and explore not only the subject of their choice but beyond which also develops ones individual self. These courses can further be evaluated through grading system, which is considered to be better than the age old marking system. It is better if we introduce and follow the uniform grading system across India which will further help the students to move across institutions within India and across countries.

Not only it will help the students but also the potential employers to assess the performance of the candidates uniformly through evaluation system and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) based on the student’s performance in the examination. One can also check the link below and make out how UGC has made the guidelines which have to be followed.

Source UGC Guideline

We must be familiar with the structure and implementation of Choice Based Credit System (CBCS). They are as follows:

The approach should be student centric. That is, the CBCS system will permit the students to choose their choice of courses like inter or intra disciplinary courses, skill based courses, etc. It gives relaxation to students to take up the course even they are from different disciplines like a student can combine Physics with Economics likewise.
The student has the freedom to complete their course from different institutions at different period of time.  It can also transfer the points or the credit which the student gets from one institute to other.  Hence, if the CBCS system gets implemented it will be good for a student as it provides flexibility and also meet their requirement.
The students get the privilege to choose the subjects of their choice. They are being classified as different groups which allow the students to choose their choice of subjects from each group. UGC has categorized as mentioned below:
Core Course – In core course, the student have to compulsory study the core or the main subject to fulfill the requirement of the programme of that particular discipline which he/she is studying. Core courses will be there in every semester.
Elective Course – In elective course, the student can choose any paper of his/her choice. It could be :
Discipline Specific Elective Course like it will support the discipline of study with the main subject.
It could provide an extended scope for the student to study further.
It also gives the student the exposure to some other areas.
It also nurtures the student’s proficiency/skill on any particular subject.
Generic Elective
Project
Ability Enhancement Courses
Skill Enhancement Course
Foundation Course – there are two types of Foundation courses – Compulsory Foundation and Elective Foundation.
Compulsory Foundation course are content based which leads a student for their knowledge improvement. They are compulsory for all disciplines.
Elective Foundation course are based upon values which aims at man-making education.
Though UGC has given guidelines to get a degree for BA/B.Com Honours, B.Sc Honours, BA/B.Com and B.Sc the candidate must have minimum required qualification.
Semester system is followed on Choice Based Credit System (CBCS System). Two semesters are conducted in a year were a student’s performance gets evaluated and grading are done subject wise.
Various methods are followed for evaluation basis on the suitability of the course which is approved by various legislative bodies.
UGC recommends Letter Grades and Grade Point Systems to be applied in giving the grades under the CBCS System.
Letter Grades – It is based upon the allocation of marks which a student gets from his/her course and grades are given basis upon their marks or percentage.
Grade Point Systems – Here the marks are converted into grades based upon the fixed period.
Grade and Grade Points
Basis upon these the colleges or universities can use any of the methods. UGC recommends 10- point grading system with the following letter grades:



Course

Credit

Grade Letter

Grade Point

(credit*Grade point)=credit point

Course1

4

A

8

8*4=32

Course2

4

C

6

6*4=32

Course3

4

B

7

7*4=28

Course4

3

O

10

10*3=30

Course5

3

D

4

4*3=12

Course6

3

C

6

6*3=18

Course7

2

S

9

9*2=18

Course8

2

C

6

6*2=12

 

25

 

 

174